Thermal Power Plants

As the name suggests, these power plants convert heat energy into electrical energy. The working fluid of these plants is mostly steam and they work on the Rankine cycle. A steam power plant consists of a boiler which is used to generate the steam from water, a prime mover like a steam turbine to convert the enthalpy of the steam into rotary motion of the turbine which is linked to the alternator to produce electricity. The steam is again condensed in the condenser and fed to the boiler again

How electricity is generated through oil

An oil power station turns the chemical energy in oil into electrical energy that can be used in homes and businesses.

The oil (1) is piped into the boiler

(2), where it is burned, converting its chemical energy into heat energy. This heats water in pipes coiled around the boiler, turning it into steam. The hot steam expands in the narrow pipes, so when it emerges it is under high pressure.

The pressure drives the steam over the blades of the steam turbine

(3), causing it to spin, converting the heat energy released in the boiler into mechanical energy. A shaft connects the steam turbine to the turbine generator

, so when the turbine spins, so does the generator. The generator uses an electromagnetic field to convert


this mechanical energy into electrical energy

After passing through the turbine, the steam comes into contact with pipes full of cold water. In coastal stations this water is pumped straight from the sea

(5). The cold pipes cool the steam so that it condenses back into water. It is then piped back to the boiler, where it can be heated up again, turn into steam again, and keep the turbine turning

Finally, a transformer converts the electrical energy from the generator to a high voltage. The national grid uses high voltages to transmit electricity efficiently through the power lines (6) to the homes and businesses that need it

(7). Here, other transformers reduce the voltage back down to a usable level.

As well as heat, burning oil produces exhaust gases. These are piped from the boiler to the exhaust stack

(8), which contains equipment that filters out any particles, before venting into the atmosphere. The stack is built tall so that the exhaust gas plume

(9) can disperse before it touches the ground. This ensures that it does not affect the quality of the air around the station.



Thermal Power Plant (ST) Of a more complete perspective:

Steam is an important medium of producing mechanical energy. Steam has the advantages that it can be raised from water which is available in abundance it does not react much with the materials of the equipment of the power plant and is suitable at the temperature required in the plant. Steam is used to drive steam engines, steam turbine etc. Thermal electrical power generation is one of the major methods. For a thermal power plant the range of pressure may vary from 10 kg/cm2 critical pressure and the range of temperature may be from 2500C to6500C.
Main parts of a steam power plant:
1. Boiler (Babcock and Wilcox)
2. Steam turbines (LPT, IPT and HPT)
4. Heaters (LPH and HPH)

Working principle:
1. At first water is feed into the boiler and heated by the furnace heat. A boiler contains 9 furnace where each furnace having about 12000C.
2. In boiler the separation line separates the steam from water. Water evaporates through natural circulation with down comer.
3. Then steam is super heated and passed through the high pressure turbine (HPT).
4. After discharging from HPT the temperature and pressure decreases and again reheated to get proper temperature.
5. Then it passes through the intermediate and low pressure turbine. It rotates the turbine at a high speed.
6. The shaft of the turbines is coupled with the shaft of generator. Since the turbine rotates, the generator shaft also rotates and produces electricity.
7. Then the steam is condensed at condenser by river water. After condensing the steam turns into water. Then the water is pumped to the low pressure heater (LPH).
8. Then the water is pumped into deareator and removed oxide particle and Oxygen gas.
9. Then the water is pumped into Feed Water Tank (FWT) and passes through the High Pressure Heater (HPT).
10. Finally the water is feed into boiler drum and the process circulated in cyclic order
11. All the units are controlled by manually except the unit-5. It follows DCS (Digital Control System).
Combine Cycle Power Plant (CCPP):
Combine cycle power plant is modernly emerged power plant which uses the heat from flue gas exhausted by gas turbine to produce steam to operate the steam turbine as well. In another way CCPP may be defined as a combine cycle power plant including both GT and ST.
There are actually two separate units under CCPP.
1.GT-1 (Combine cycle mode)
2. GT-2 (Open cycle mode)
images/Product/power-plant/gas-turbines-cail co.jpg 
                             Gas Turbine
Gas Turbine Unit:
In gas turbine unit both GT-1 and GT-2 is same except that the flue gas of GT-1 is used to produce steam in combine cycle. The flow diagram of gas turbine units is shown in below.
                              Flow diagram of gas turbine unit
Starting Sequence:
0 rpm
Gas turbine starts
750 rpm
Ignition starts
1800 rpm
Diesel engine off.
2300 rpm
Excitation on
3000 rpm
No load running
 After synchronizing
Breaker on
Diesel engine:
 A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine. It is also known ascompression ignition engine. It consists of 16 chambers and it’s power is about 1870 HP. The engine shaft is coupled with the turbine shaft. Since it rotates at certain speed hence the turbine also rotates and electricity is produce by generator. Actually it is used as initial power source.
Condition for running:        
1.Shaft coupling will be connected until engine rpm is greater than turbine rpm.
2.Shaft coupling will be disconnected until engine rpm is less than turbine rpm.
 A dc supply is always connected with the generatorfor excitation and to produce magnetic field. If there is no excitation no flux will produce. Hence no electricity will generate. So a dc exciter is very necessary for excitation.
Air filter:
A particular air filter is a device composed of fibrous materials which removes solid particles such as dust, pollen, mold and bacteria from the air. The filter pad absorbs the small particles by viscous fluids and the metallic filter removes the large particles. The combustion air filter prevents abrasive particles from entering the engine’s cylinders, where it would cause mechanical wear and oil contamination known as “Engine air induction system.”
 So this air must be dust free for efficient operation. Hence air filter is used.
Three types of filters are used:
1.Turbine filter
2.Generator cooling filter
3.Ventilation filter

                     images/Product/power-plant/Air Filter in power plant -cail co.jpg
                                                     Air Filter

 Here multistage type rotary compressor is used to compress the air at high pressure and supply to combustor. This compressed air is used to ignite the fuel. But its major amount is used to cool the generator.
A combustor is a component or area of a gas turbine, ramjet, or scramjet engine where combustion takes place. It is also known as a burner or flame can. A combustion chamber has ten burners.  In a gas turbine engine, the main combustor or combustion chamber is fed high pressure air by the compression system and feeds the hot, high pressure exhaust into the turbine components of the engine. Combustors are designed to contain and control the combustion of the fuel-air mixture. The combustor consists of several major components such as:
The case is the outer shell of the combustor, and is a fairly simple structure. The casing generally requires little maintenance. The case is protected from thermal loads by the air flowing in it, so thermal performance is of limited concern. However, the casing serves as a pressure vessel that must withstand the difference between the high pressures inside the combustor and the lower pressure outside.
The purpose of the diffuser is to slow the high speed, highly compressed, air from the compressor to a velocity optimal for the combustor. Reducing the velocity results in an unavoidable loss in total pressure, so one of the design challenges is to limit the loss of pressure as much as possible. Furthermore, the diffuser must be designed to limit the flow distortion as much as possible by avoiding flow effects like boundary layer separation. Like most other gas turbine engine components, the diffuser is designed to be as short and light as possible.
The liner contains the combustion process and introduces the various airflows (intermediate, dilution, and cooling air) into the combustion zone. The liner must be designed and built to withstand extended high temperature cycles. Furthermore, even though high performance alloys are used, the liners must be cooled with air flow.Some combustors also make use of thermal barrier coatings. However, air cooling is still required. In general, there are two main types of liner cooling; film cooling and transpiration cooling. Film cooling works by injecting (by one of several methods) cool air from outside of the liner to just inside of the liner. This creates a thin film of cool air that protects the liner, reducing the temperature at the liner from around 1800 K to around 830 K, for example. The other type of liner cooling, transpiration cooling, is a more modern approach that uses a porous material for the liner. The porous liner allows a small amount of cooling air to pass through it, providing cooling benefits similar to film cooling.
The snout is an extension of the dome that acts as an air splitter, separating the primary air from the secondary air flows (intermediate, dilution, and cooling air).
Dome or swirler:
The dome and swirler are the part of the combustor that the primary air flows through as it enters the combustion zone. Their role is to generate turbulence in the flow to rapidly mix the air with fuel.Early combustors tended to use bluff body domes (rather than swirler), which used a simple plate to create wake turbulence to mix the fuel and air. The swirler establishes a local low pressure zone that forces some of the combustion products to re-circulate, creating the high turbulence. However, the higher the turbulence, the higher the pressure loss will be for the combustor, so the dome and swirler must be carefully designed so as not to generate more turbulence than is needed to sufficiently mix the fuel and air.
Fuel injector:
The fuel injector is responsible for introducing fuel to the combustion zone and, along with the swirler, is responsible for mixing the fuel and air. There are four primary types of fuel injectors:
1. pressure-atomizing
2. air blast
3.  vaporizing
4.  premixing injectors
 Pressure atomizing fuel injectors rely on high fuel pressures. This type of fuel injector has the advantage of being very simple, but it has several disadvantages. The fuel system must be robust enough to withstand such high pressures, and the fuel tends to be heterogeneously atomized, resulting in incomplete or uneven combustion which has more pollutants and smoke.
The second type of fuel injector is the air blast injector. This injector "blasts" a sheet of fuel with a stream of air, atomizing the fuel into homogeneous droplets. This type of fuel injector led to the first smokeless combustors.
The vaporizing fuel injector, the third type, is similar to the air blast injector in that primary air is mixed with the fuel as it is injected into the combustion zone. Heat from the combustion zone is transferred to the fuel-air mixture, vaporizing some of the fuel (mixing it better) before it is combusted. This method allows the fuel to be combusted with less thermal radiation, which helps protect the liner
The premixing injectors work by mixing or vaporizing the fuel before it reaches the combustion zone. This method allows the fuel to be very uniformly mixed with the air, reducing emissions from the engine. One disadvantage of this method is that fuel may auto-ignite. If this happens the combustor can be seriously damaged.
Most igniters in gas turbine applications are electrical spark igniters, similar to automotive spark plugs. The igniter needs to be in the combustion zone where the fuel and air are already mixed, but it needs to be far enough upstream so that it is not damaged by the combustion itself. Once the combustion is initially started by the igniter, it is self sustaining and the igniter is no longer used.
Waste Heat Recovery Unit (WHRU):
After combustion some flue gases are produced having temperature about 5000C which exits through the chimney. This will be great loss if the flue gases are not used properly. For this a combine cycle plant is introduced which use the flue gas as working fluid. Here damper is used to recover the waste heat.  
Damper blocks the chimney and passes the flue gas to boiler and produce steam. This steam is used to generate electricity at steam turbine. Since both of steam and gas turbines are used it is called combine cycle power plant (CCPP).
Benefits of Waste Heat Recovery:
Benefits of ‘waste heat recovery’ can be broadly classified in two categories:
Direct Benefits:
Recovery of waste heat has a direct effect on the efficiency of the process. This is reflected by reduction in the utility consumption & costs, and process cost.
Indirect Benefits:
a) Reduction in pollution: A number of toxic combustible wastes such as carbon monoxide gas, sour gas, carbon black off gases, oil sludge and other plastic chemicals etc, releasing to atmosphere when burnt in the incinerators serves dual purpose i.e. recovers heat and reduces the environmental pollution levels.
b) Reduction in equipment sizes: Waste heat recovery reduces the fuel consumption, which leads to reduction in the flue gas produced. This results in reduction in equipment sizes of all flue gas handling equipments such as fans, stacks, ducts, burners, etc.
c) Reduction in auxiliary energy consumption: Reduction in equipment sizes gives additional benefits in the form of reduction in auxiliary energy consumption like electricity for fans, pumps etc.
Utilization of waste heat:
This waste heat of flue gases is used to produce steam at steam boiler of CCPP. The water and steam flow diagram is shown in below:
images/Product/power-plant/WASTE HEAT RECOVERY UNIT-cail co.png
                                              Water and steam flow diagram 
Boiler function:
There are many tubes of the boiler. The tubes are named as shown in figure due to there position and rate of heat contact. In super heater side the temperature is very high and it’s gradually decrease to upward direction.
LP Evaporator:
It works like a economizer. It increases the water temperature slightly.
HP evaporator:
Water inters into the evaporator from HP drum at 2200C. Here water is converted into saturated steam by reducing its latent heat. When water out from evaporator its temperature lies at 2300C.
Super heater:
Super heater makes the saturated steam into super heated steam. This super heated steam is used to rotate the turbine. Hence the electricity is produced by the rotation of turbine.
Here some chemicals are added to purify the water. The process of mixing additives with water is known as “dosing.”
1. NH3 is added in deareator to increase the pH level and dissolve O2.
2. N2H4 is used to remove dissolved O2 which may occur oxide with copper and iron as such:
4Cu + 2O = 4CuO
4Fe + 3O2 = 2Fe2O3
3.PO4 is added to remove sand particles. 
Overall working principle of CCPP:
At first air is extracted from the atmosphere & then filtered by the air filters. The filtered air is then sent to the air compressor in order to compress at high pressure. After that compressed air and gas are sent to the combustion chamber which is ignited by the spark plug. Due to this combustion of the gas high temperature is produced in the combustion chamber and lies between 8000C to 8500C. The hot flue gas produced in combustion chamber then passes through the turbine blades of 2 stages. The produced hot flue gas first enters into the static blade of turbine which acts as a nozzle to increase the velocity of the flue gas. This hot flue gas having high velocity strikes the rotating blade of turbine which in turn rotates the shaft connecting to the rotating blade. This shaft is also connected with the compressor as well as generator. Hence it is called single shaftturbine unit. Due to the rotation of the shaft, magnet existing in the rotor of generator rotates and produces magnetic flux. This magnetic flux cuts the conductor situated in the stator which eventually produces electricity.  This turbine has two sections. One is called HP (High Pressure) turbine and other is called LP (Low Pressure) turbine. While passing through the HP turbine, the temperature & pressure of the flue gas drops to some extent.  The flue gas then passes through the LP turbine and temperature reduces to 5000C.  Consequently the flue gas goes to the damper as exhaust & is released to the atmosphere through stock.  
In case of GT-1, this exhaust gas is passed through a waste heat recovery unit (WHRU) where a boiler which uses heat from flue gases to produce steam. WHRU consists of a column of evaporator through which water is circulated to produce steam. It also consists of an Hp drum, deareator and some centrifugal pumps. At first, water is pumped into the deareator to remove all kind of dissolved gases such as O2, CO2 etc. From deareator water is pumped by LP pump to LP evaporator to take some heat from exhaust gas and then again sent to the deareator.  Next water is pumped to the forced flow section by feed pump to take more heat from exhaust gas and sent to the HP steam drum. In HP steam drum there resides actually a mixture of steam and water. This saturated steam from HP steam drum is then sent to the HP evaporator by HP pump to pressurize it. This high pressure steam is then sent to the super heater to become superheated steam. This superheated steam is then sent to turbine by an arrangement of pipe system through CIES valve. The thermal energy contained in the steam rotates the steam turbine blades. The shaft connected to the turbine blades also rotates the magnet of generator. Due to the rotation of electromagnet, magnetic flux cuts on the generator winding. In this way, a voltage is induced in the conductor and electricity is produced.  When steam is passed through the HP turbine section the pressure and temperature of the steam becomes very high and then gradually decreases while passing through the LP turbine. The exhaust low pressure steam came out from the LP turbine is condensed in the condenser by the help of river water. This condensed steam is termed as condensate. This condensate is then again passed to the deareator by condensate pumps. If there is any shortage in condensate then some make up water is pumped by makeup pump to compensate the loss.





Technical knowledge, and ability to provide all engineering services from phase zero to launch cement factory.

We execute our projects with a true EPC approach, performing every aspect of the project ourselves and doing the work for a fixed price.

Preliminary survey and demarcation of mining and mineral according to the chemical quality of raw materials - Plant location - review the technical and economic feasibility studies of the project - procurement, installation and commissioning of equipment and machinery for the projec. As well as Financial Resources supply of project.

At cail, we are focused on delivering innovative LNG solutions and superior project results. Our true EPC business model, combined with our industry expertise.


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Our engineers, with benefiting from the world knowledge, and using today’s communication technology,In iron and steel and metal industry services, including:auto-feeding system burning system, pyrolysis system, heavy and light oil separate system, cooling system, exhaust gas recycling system, dedusting system, auto slag discharging system ,and also  to offer scrap shredder operators a set of resources that is unmatched by other suppliers of ferrous metal scrap and auto shredding equipment to make the right shredder facility to meet your needs and match your budget.

Think about Recycling

Saving of raw materials and energy by not having to first extract the iron from the ore.    Avoiding the pollution problems in the extraction of iron from the ore.    Not having to find space to dump the unwanted iron if it wasn't recycled.

 Oil & Gas

 Cail With experienced staff in onshore oil and gas development, oil and gas processing terminals, and underground gas storage. Services are provided for these industries from conceptual design and optimization, through complete turnkey EPC solutions.Services provided. cail delivers high quality, commercially viable solutions for  oil and gas developments, focusing on generating maximum value for our clients. Our specialist teams offer a comprehensive scope of services, encompassing initial concept studies through full engineering and construction contracts. Our key project and engineering staff include personnel experienced in plant operations, helping to ensure that we provide innovative and operable solutions to challenging projects.Our services include:

 Front end treating studies to assess project feasibility, schedules, capital expenditures, and operating and maintenance costs





petrochemical are products produced from hydrocarbon-based raw materials such as oil or gas into products for a wide range of applications.There are numerous types of petrochemicals and petrochemical end products. Some have consumer uses and others are mainly for industrial use. The primary petrochemical industry produces substances such as methanol, ethylene, toluene, and propylene directly from feed stocks. Intermediate and derivative .


We offer turnkey solutions for types of fertilizer projects by offering the complete line of fertilizer plants. We supply fertilizer plants to manufacture fertilizer in both the powder form and granulated form. The range includes :Urea fertilizer production



CAIL  has Ready to  provider of engineering, procurement and construction services to the power industry . Our expertise encompasses both traditional and emerging technologies, including fossil fuel electric generation,  hydroelectric and wind power.Our technologies and services for power industry customers include: Absorber vessels, stacks and chimney liners for fossil fuel plants  Penstocks, scroll cases and bifurcations for hydroelectric plants, Wind turbines

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We Interest from few companies that can self-perform all aspects of the work from concept through commissioning. Thus, we focus on results, not billable hours. This integrated approach is possible because we Using of people around the world who are specialists in design, testing, fabrication, welding, construction and project management.

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Our company undertakes design, and order of manufacturing, supply, erection and commissioning of paper machines and modernization of existing pulp mill and paper machines on a turnkey basic. We have the necessary capabilities in project engineering, project management.

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Owing to our rich Construction Industry experience, we offer complete customer satisfaction to our clients. The products offered by us are in accordance with the industrial quality standards. We conduct various quality tests on required parameters and offer them in a stipulated time frame. The machines are manufactured under the supervision of our well-versed professionals.

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We are a professional total-solution supplier of pharmaceutical machines and turn-key GMP projects. We combine European technology with China's manufacturing advantage, providing high-end equipment and projects with European standards from our modern China facility to worldwide customers.

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- Full scopes of machines:

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